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English Grammar and Exercises for ESL learners.


Present Perfect Tense

(example : to do)





Present Perfect Simple
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long Form Contracted Form




I have done I have not done I haven't done Have I done?
You have done You have not done You haven't done Have you done?
He/she/it has done He/she/it has not done He/she/it hasn't done Has he/she/it done?
We have done We have not done We haven't done Have we done?
You have done You have not done You haven't done Have you done?
They have done They have not done They haven't done Have they done?




     
Present Perfect Continuous
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Long Form Contracted Form




I have been doing I have not been doing I haven't been doing Have I been doing?
You have been doing You have not been doing You haven't been doing Have you been doing?
He/she/has been doing He/she/it has not  been doing He/she/it hasn't been doing. Has he/she/it been doing?
We have been doing We have not been doing We haven't been doing Have we been doing?
You have been doing You have not been doing You haven't been doing Have you been doing?
They have been doing They have not been doing They haven't been doing Have they been doing?




The present perfect is used to refer to actions which take place in an
unfinished time period up to the time of speaking.

  • The present perfect continuous tense is used to refer to an action which
    started in the past and continues today. It emphasises the uninterrupted
    progress of an action.

    • I have been learning English since September.
      (I started in September and I continue to take lessons today.)

  • The present perfect simple is used to refer to the finished part of
    a continuous action. It emphasises the completion of an action and its results  

      So far in my English course :
    • I have learnt new vocabulary.
    • I have revised some grammar rules.
      (My English course is not finished, but I have finished some of the lessons.)

Example:
Today is your English Revision day. It is now 2 p.m.
At 9 o'clock this morning you started your revision work. At 2 pm the day is not finished, so you can say :
"I have been revising my English since 9 o'clock this morning."
(You are still revising your English, so the continuous form is used.)

However, you have completed part of the revision work, so you can say,
for example:  "So far today I have revised tenses and irregular verbs."

N.B.
If you refer to a specific time earlier in the day, you must use the Past Simple :
"This morning I revised tenses and irregular verbs." or,
"I met Charlie for lunch at 12.30"

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The following should be noted:

1) Some verbs can be used in both forms with no change in meaning.
With some verbs such as live and work, the present perfect simple OR continuous
can generally be used with no difference in meaning.
  • I've lived/I've worked here for 10 years.
  • I've been living/I've been working here for 10 years.
However, only the present perfect simple is used with 'always'.
  • I've always lived here NOT I've always been living here.

2) Stative Verbs
Stative verbs have no continuous form.
Stative verbs are verbs that denote possession, mental states or emotions,
for example: own, belong, know, believe, like, wish ...
We can say: "I’ve known Bob for 20 years" NOT "I have been knowing Bob for 20 years".

More about the present perfect

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back to verb list