English Grammar and Exercises for ESL learners.
Conditionals are sentences with two clauses: an ‘if' clause and a main clause.
Four basic conditional structures are used in English.
- Zero Conditional
- First Conditional
- Second Conditional
- Third Conditional
|Zero Conditional||What is always true or usually happens, or what is advised in this situation.|
+ Present Simple
|If||you have a ticket||you go straight in.|
|If||you stand in the rain||you get wet.|
|If||you see an accident||call an ambulance.|
|The 'if' in the above sentences can usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the meaning.|
|First Conditional||Something that will possibly happen in the future.|
||+Present Simple||+Will + Infinitive|
|If||I see an accident||I will call a doctor.|
|If||it rains tomorrow||the picnic will be cancelled.|
|If||you make an apple tart||Dad will eat it.|
|Note : Sometimes we use can or
may instead of will.
For example : If you finish your vegetables, you can have a dessert.
Imaginary events that are probably not going to happen.
|If||+Past Simple||+Would + Infinitive|
|If||I saw an accident||I would call a doctor.|
|If||he had more money||he would buy a new car.|
|If||she worked harder||her results would improve.|
|Note : Sometimes we use could or
might instead of would.
For example : If we invited the author, he might come.
If we ordered a larger quantity, we could ask for a reduction.
| Third Conditional
Something that did not happen,
and the reaction or result you imagine
if it really had happened.
|If||+Past Perfect||+Would + have + Past Participle|
|If||I had seen the accident||I would have called a doctor.|
|If||he had read the instructions||he would have assembled it faster.|
|If||she had stayed in Paris||she would have improved her French .|