English Grammar and Exercises for ESL learners.
LINKING WORDS and PHRASES
Linking words and phrases in English
(also called 'connective' or 'transition' words) are used
to combine two clauses or sentences presenting contrast, comparison, condition, supposition, purpose, etc. They enable us to establish clear connections between ideas.
Most linking words can either connect clauses within a sentence, or start a sentence to form
a link with the previous statement.
Below you will find some examples of linking words and how to use them. This is not a comprehensive list. You may want to add your own linking words and phrases.
Examples of linking words within one sentence:
|Linking Words||Example of use|
|As long as
|You can take my car as long
you don't damage it.
(I will lend you my car on condition that you don't damage it.)
|Although/even though||Although/even though he is
rich, he lives in a small house.
(In spite of the fact that he is rich, he lives in a small house.)
|Even if||He is poor and has no house, but
he had money, he
wouldn't buy a house.
(Supposing he had the money, he still wouldn't buy a house.)
|In case||Take an umbrella in case it
(It might rain, so it's a good idea to take an umbrella.)
|In spite of / despite||In spite of/despite the
rain, she walked to the station.
in spite of/despite being blind, he walked to the station.
(without being affected by the rain or by being blind.)
|So that||She arrived early so that
she could help her colleagues.
(She arrived early for the purpose of helping her colleagues.)
|Whatever||You can count on me
whatever you decide to do.
(No matter what your decision is, you can count on me.)
|Whereas||Tom is rich, whereas Jack
(Tom is rich; in contrast Jack is poor.)
|Whenever||I will lend you my car
whenever you need it.
(No matter when you need my car, I will lend it to you.)
|Wherever||My thoughts will be with you
wherever you go.
(No matter where you go, my thoughts will be with you.)
Examples of linking words that connect two separate sentences or two clauses:
|Linking Words||Example of use|
As a result
were reduced by 20%.
As a result, sales
The company is expanding. Consequently, there are jobs on offer.
A hurricane has been announced. Therefore, air traffic will be disrupted.
|The trip is too expensive.
Besides, I don't really like hot weather.
Computers are cheaper nowadays; furthermore, they are lighter.
You haven't paid the rent yet. In addition, you owe me money.
The report is badly presented. Moreover, it contains inaccuracies.
| There are several problems to consider; for instance/for
there is a lack of public transport.
On the contrary
On the other hand
Northern European countries had a great summer.
On the contrary/conversely, southern Europe had poor weather.
Laptops are convenient; on the other hand, they can be expensive
The hotel was open. However,
nobody came to the reception
He had severe injuries; nevertheless, he completely recovered.
The weather was bitterly cold. He went hiking nonetheless.
In the same way
By the same token
Alex enjoys telling jokes;
in the same way/similarly/likewise,
his son adores funny stories.
Teenagers should be more respectful; by the same token, parents should be more understanding.
To summarise/sum up
I've covered the main events of the year.
To sum up/briefly, our team is now one of the best in the world.
To conclude, I want to wish you all a very happy holiday season.
|multi-choice ex.1||multi-choice ex.2||Make new sentence ex.1||Make new sentence ex.2|