Visitors :

Please place a pin on
the guestmap to show
where you come from.

Free Guestmap from

Many thanks for all your encouraging messages.

Guestmap information
Follow us on Facebook

Custom Search

English Grammar and Exercises for ESL learners.


  • In case

    In case expresses the possibility of something happening.
    It is used to express the idea of doing something to avoid a possible problem later on.
    It gives the reason for an action.

    • Take an umbrella in case it rains.
      = There is a possibility that it will rain, so it's a good idea to take an umbrella.

    • You'd better take a coat in case it gets cold later on.
      = It could get cold later on, so it might be safer to take a coat.

  • In case + 'of'

    In case of means 'if there is'; 'if (something) should happen'.

    • In case of emergency, call this number.
      = If there is an emergency, call this number.

    • In case of breakdown, please press the red button to call for assistance.
      = If the lift breaks down, please press the red button.

  • Unless

    Unless means 'except if' or 'only if'.
    Unless replaces 'if' + a negative verb.

    • Sally won't come unless you invite Harry. Meaning:
      • Sally won't come except if you invite Harry.
      • Sally will only come if you invite Harry.
      • If you don't invite Harry, Sally won't come.

    • We will have a picnic unless it rains. Meaning:
      • We will have a picnic except if it rains.
      • If it doesn't rain we will have a picnic.
      • If it rains, we won't have a picnic.

back to grammar